'Islamic Sharia' is the set of laws which are needed to be followed by the Muslim Ummah. It has been set compulsory for Muslims to live their life according to these defined rules. People who put allegations on Islam for being a limited religion, and call it a religion of past, will be enlightened about the versatility of the same Religion.
There are two sources of Islamic Sharia, one being the primary while the other being secondary. Secondary, in no way means that it can be skipped. Infact, It is the one which is needed in current world to resolve many issues being faced by Ummah.
Primary sources are the ones which were given to us through Holy Prophet(PBUH). Holy Quran was revealed on Holy Prophet(PBUH). Hadith are the sayings and response of Holy Prophet(PBUH) to different actions of people. Allah(SWT) in Holy Quran says.
‘Whatever the Prophet gives you take it and whatever he forbids avoid it.’ (Hashr: 7) It tells us to take everything from Holy Prophet seriously and orders us to do those actions which should be based on sayings and doings of Rasul Allah(SAWW)
1) Holy Quran
Importance of Holy Quran can be concluded from the following verse
‘Allah did confer a great favour on the believers when he sent to them an Apostle from among themselves, reciting unto them the verses of Allah, purifying them and teaching them the book and wisdom. While before that they were surely in error.’(Aale Imran: 164)
Holy Prophet on an event said
‘Pray as you see me praying.’
In Holy Quran, We have been told to pray five times a day but the way of prayer has not been discussed.The above hadith was for sure a message of Holy Prophet(PBUH) that you won't find the details of everything in Holy Quran, You will have to follow by actions too to understand the religion.Importance of Hadith can be understood by the foretold reason.
Holy Prophet(PBUH) said.
"The best among you (Muslims) are those who learn Quran and teach it.".
Although, primary sources of sharia solves much of the problems of Ummah and in a true sense, lays the foundations of Islam clearly but there still was a need of few other sources so that Islam should not be a time bound religion. These other sources were clearly mentioned in Hadith too.
Ijma means 'consensus'. When Muslim Scholars unite on an issue and give some opinion, upon which all are agreed, it is called as Ijma. A hadith of Raul Allah(SAWW) is
"My Ummah will not unite upon error." [Reported by at-Tirmidhee and Haakim - Sahih]
So, according to hadith e mubaaraka, Once Scholars develope a consensus on some specific issue. It becomes obligatory for Muslims to foolow the orders.
Term Ijtehad means 'Independent Reasoning'. In Ijtehad, a Scholar through his/her hardwork, research and knowledge gives a fatwa -It is not mandatory to give fatwa on ijtehad-. His decision can be followed on free will.
When a decision is taken from Holy Quran and is applied to someother case in the contemporary world, it is called as Qiyas.
Secondary sources of Sharia are the ones which clearly depicts the versatility in the religion. Through secondary sources, almost all the problems of Ummah can be solved, for which, representatives of major school of thoughts will have to sit on a table with patience and a motivation to unite Ummah.