How many times have you read an Islamic book or listened to a talk that contained fancy Arabic words, and you didn't have a clue what the geezer was chattin' about?
Well, here's your guide to the main 11 terms used in Islamic law (shari'ah):
- Fardh: The Obligation. This is a ruling that must be carried out, if you don't it is a big-time sin. It is directly from Quran and Sunnah so to deny it is an act of kufr (disbelief). Example: The 5 pillars of Islam
- Wajib: The necessary. This is a ruling that should be carried out, if not it will again be a sin, and Him (swt) upstairs will not be happy. So, to deny this act as obligatory is not kufr. Example: Eid Prayer and the Witr prayer after Isha.
- Sunnah Muakkidah: This is an act that the Holy Prophet did continuously throughout his lifetime. So this action is highly recommended. If you continually ignore this Sunnah then it will be a sin and you will be seen as a chap turning away from the practise of the Prophet (saw). Example: Praying in Jam'aah (congregation) and saying the Adhaan.
- Sunnah Ghair Muakkidah: This was an act of the Prophet (saw), which he did not perform regularly. If you do it you will be rewarded, if not it will not be a sin. One should do his best to carry out this form of Sunnah to increase the Iman. EXAMPLE: The four Sunnah of Asr and Isha.
- Mustahab: Desirable. These are actions, which the Shariah approves and agrees with. If you carry it out you will be rewarded and if you don't there's no punishment. Example: Voluntary fasts and prayers.
- Haraam: Unlawful. This is a ruling, which forbids something, and therefore it must be avoided. It is a direct command from the Quran and Sunnah. To regard an unlawful act as lawful is kufr. To commit the unlawful is the mother of all sins. Example: Drinking alcohol, gambling, adultery etc.
- Makru Tehreemi: Major offence. This is a ruling, which is not proved by a definite text or argument. To ignore this ruling is a sin, which is punishable, but to regard it permissible is not an act of kufr. Example:Smoking.
- Isa'ah: The Offence. It is a sin to do it and doing it regularly is a major sin. Example: Shaving the beard.
- Makruh Tanzeehi: Minor offence. A ruling, which makes something undesirable, and it is best to avoid it, but there is no sin or harm in doing it. Example: Splashing water on the face during wudhu.
- Khilaf-E-Aula: The undesirable. This is the opposite of Mustahab, it is best to avoid it but there is no harm in doing it. Example:Reading many prayers with one Wudu.
- Muba'ah: The Permissible. An action that is neither prescribed nor prohibited by the Shar'iah. I t carries NO reward or any punishment. Example:Talking about something that has no harm and no benefit.
© The Revival 2001